Hypercalcaemia is a calcium / bone disorder in which the child has very high levels of calcium in the blood. It is divided into three categories:
- Mild (11.9 mg/dL)
- Moderate (11.9+14.9 mg/dL)
- Severe (over 15 mg/dL).
It may be due to hyperparathyroidism, granulomatous diseases (Crohn’s disease) or other conditions (Addison’s disease, hypervitaminosis D).
What are the symptoms of hypercalcaemia?
Children with hypercalcaemia exhibit:
- Sleep disorders
- Reduced appetite
- Excessive urination (polyuria) and thirst (polydipsia)
- Kidney failure
- Unsteady gait
- Muscular weakness.
Hypercalcaemia can often be asymptomatic in newborns or present as low muscle tone (hypotonia) or epileptic seizures.
How is hypercalcaemia diagnosed?
The endocrinologist will order some tests to confirm the diagnosis. These include blood tests to measure calcium, phosphorous levels and the values of the parathyroid hormone and Vitamin D, as well as bone x-rays of the skull, pelvis, and limbs.
Calcium / Bone Disorders: How is hypercalcaemia treated?
Treatment begins with the hydration of the child. Pharmaceutical preparations are then administered depending on the cause of the problem. In cases of severe hypercalcaemia, close monitoring and treatment is needed in order to stabilise calcium levels.